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  1. Just-In-Time Compilation (JIT):
    • PHP 8 introduced a JIT compiler that can provide performance improvements for certain types of workloads. This allows the PHP engine to convert the intermediate code into machine code at runtime, potentially speeding up the execution of scripts.
  2. Attributes:
    • PHP 8 introduced the concept of attributes, which provides a way to add metadata to classes, methods, and properties. Attributes are similar to annotations in other languages and are used for various purposes, including code generation and static analysis.
  3. Match Expression:
    • PHP 8 introduced the match expression, which is a more powerful and concise alternative to the switch statement. It allows for more expressive and complex comparisons.
$result = match($value) {
    1, 2 => 'One or Two',
    3, 4 => 'Three or Four',
    default => 'Other'
};

4. Nullsafe Operator:

  • PHP 8 introduced the nullsafe operator (?->), which allows for safe and concise null checking when accessing properties or methods of an object.
$result = $object?->getProperty()?->getValue();

5. Union Types:

  • PHP 7.4 introduced limited support for union types, and PHP 8 expanded on this feature. Union types allow a variable to accept multiple types.
public function myFunction(string|int $param): void {
    // Function logic
}

6. Error Handling Improvements:

  • PHP 8 introduced the throw expression, which allows throwing exceptions in expressions, making error handling more concise.
$value = $array['key'] ?? throw new NotFoundException('Key not found');

7. Constructor Property Promotion:

  • PHP 8 introduced constructor property promotion, a shorthand syntax for declaring and initializing class properties in the constructor.
class MyClass {
    public function __construct(public $property1, private $property2) {
        // Constructor logic
    }
}

Attribute Example :

#[Attribute(Attribute::TARGET_PROPERTY)]
class Validation {
    public function __construct(public string $rule) {}
}

class User {
    #[Validation('required')]
    public string $username;

    #[Validation('email')]
    public string $email;

    #[Validation('numeric')]
    public int $age;

    public function __construct(string $username, string $email, int $age) {
        $this->username = $username;
        $this->email = $email;
        $this->age = $age;
    }

    public function validate() {
        $classReflection = new ReflectionClass($this);

        foreach ($classReflection->getProperties() as $property) {
            $propertyName = $property->getName();
            $attributes = $property->getAttributes(Validation::class);

            foreach ($attributes as $attribute) {
                $validationRule = $attribute->newInstance()->rule;

                // Perform validation based on the rule
                // For simplicity, we'll just echo the result
                echo "Validating $propertyName with rule: $validationRule - ";
                if ($this->validateProperty($propertyName, $validationRule)) {
                    echo "Passed<br>";
                } else {
                    echo "Failed<br>";
                }
            }
        }
    }

    private function validateProperty(string $propertyName, string $rule): bool {
        // Perform validation logic based on the rule
        switch ($rule) {
            case 'required':
                return !empty($this->$propertyName);
            case 'email':
                return filter_var($this->$propertyName, FILTER_VALIDATE_EMAIL) !== false;
            case 'numeric':
                return is_numeric($this->$propertyName);
            // Add more validation rules as needed
            default:
                return true; // No validation for unknown rules
        }
    }
}

// Create a user object
$user = new User('john_doe', 'john.doe@example.com', 25);

// Validate the user object
$user->validate();
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